Golongan transgender juga mempunyai hak!

Kami daripada komuniti transgender sangat kecewa dengan keputusan berkenaan semakan kehakiman seksyen 66 dalam Enakmen Jenayah Syariah 1992 (Negeri Sembilan) yang diberikan oleh Hakim Datuk Siti Mariah Ahmad pada Oktober 11 2012 di Makhamah Tinggi Seremban. Hakim dalam keputusannya menyatakan bahawa seksyen tersebut mengecualikan hak asasi kita yang terkandung dalam Perlembagaan Persekutuan.

Kami kecewa dengan keputusan mahkamah yang berpihak kepada kerajaan negeri dan penguatkuasanya, yang sekaligus menggalakkan diskriminasi serta keganasan berdasarkan identiti gender.

Kami juga terkejut dengan keputusan hakim kerana beliau terlalu banyak merujuk kepada teks Islam untuk menjustifikasikan kewujudan undang-undang tersebut, sedangkan Perlembagaan Persekutuan ialah undang-undang yang paling tinggi di Malaysia. Kami meminta mahkamah untuk memeriksa sama ada undang-undang tersebut selaras dengan Perlembagaan Persekutuan kerana kami percaya bahawa seksyen 66 dan undang-undang lain yang sama dengannya, tidak konsisten dengan kebebasan kita untuk berekspresi, hak untuk tidak didiskriminasi, maruah diri, privasi, serta hak untuk kerja.

Kami percaya bahawa mahkamah telah membuat kesilapan dalam keputusannya kerana mahkamah gagal untuk meneliti semua bukti-bukti perubatan. Selain itu, mahkamah juga tidak mangambil kira keganasan yang telah dialami oleh golongan mak nyah di negeri Sembilan disebabkan oleh undang-undang ini.

Seksyen 66 dan juga undang-undang lain yang sama dengannya di Malaysia telah digunakan untuk terlalu lama untuk mencabul hak asasi golongan mak nyah di negara ini. Ramai mak nyah, termasuklah empat orang yang memfailkan kes ini, telah mengalami keganasan fizikal, emosi dan seksual serta mereka juga terpaksa mendengar sindiran dan cemuhan daripada penguatkuasa daripada Jabatan Agama Islam. Golongan mak nyah pernah dipukul, ditumbuk, ditendang, diraba, dimaki, dipaksa untuk memuaskan nafsu seks penguatkuasa, dan diaibkan di tempat awam oleh penguatkuasa daripada Jabatan Agama Islam. Salah seorang daripada mereka yang memfailkan kes ini pernah dipukul dengan teruk di tempat awam oleh penguatkuasa daripada Jabatan Agama Islam Negeri Sembilan sehingga meninggalkan kesan fizikal dan mental. Beliau masih lagi mengalami trauma apabila menceritakan semula peristiwa tersebut.

Golongan transgender tidak memilih untuk menjadi transgender dan kami juga tidak boleh mengubah perasaan ini. Kami tidak berlagak seperti jantina yang bertentangan dengan kami. Kami rasa bahawa diri kami tidak seharmoni dengan jantina yang diberikan. Kami mengekspresikan diri kami berdasarkan naluri kami kerana hal ini memberikan kami kebahagiaan dan ketenangan jiwa. Ramai mak nyah seperti kami mula memakai pakaian perempuan dan bersolek sewaktu kami muda lagi; kami lebih gemar bermain dengan perempuan daripada lelaki, dan kami juga ingin mengubah rupa muka kami serta menjalani pembedahan pertukaran jantina (sex reassigment surgery) supaya kami boleh hidup dalam badan yang kami rasa paling selesa.

Dalam edisi terkini Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), American Psychiatric Association (APA) telah menggantikan istilah “Gender Identity Disorder” kepada “Gender Dysphoria,” “a marked incongruence between one’s experienced/expressed gender and assigned gender.” APA juga dalam kenyataannya menggesa kerajaan untuk memansuhkan undang-undang atau polisi-polisi yang mendiskriminasi golongan transgender dan golongan yang bervariasi gender. (rujuk lampiran 1)

Golongan transgender juga mengalami pelbagai jenis keganasan, stigma dan diskriminasi disebabkan oleh identiti gender kami, kerana kami dilihat sebagai berbeza daripda orang lain. Pada usia yang kecil lagi, kami dibuli dan dicemuh di sekolah. Sebagai kesannya, ramai kanak-kanak transgender ketinggalan di sekoleh atau tidak menyambung atau menghabiskan persekolahan mereka. Dalam sesetengah kes, keluarga mengusir dan tidak mengaku anak-anak transgender mereka kerana mereka tidak boleh menerima seorang anak yang berbeza. Akhirnya, ramai daripada golongan transgender kehilangan sistem sokongan yang penuh dengan kasih sayang yang dinikmati oleh orang lain.

Pemaparan golongan transgender sebagai golongan yang terpesong dan ancaman kepada masyarakat dalam media arus perdana juga mendorong kepada stigma, diskriminasi serta keganasan yang dialami oleh golongan transgender.

Kami percaya bahawa sebagai rakyat, tanpa mengira agama atau kumpulan etnik, golongan transgender juga mempunyai hak untuk menikamti hak-hak yang terkandung dalam Perlembagaan Persekutuan. Sebagai rakyat, kami juga berhak untuk mendapatkan perlindungan daripada kerajaan terhadap apa-apa jenis ketidakadilan, diskriminasi dan keganasan. Kami percaya bahawa keputusan mahkamah ini membawa kesan yang negatif kepada hak asasi manusia bagi semua rakyat Malaysia.

Disokong oleh

1. Aliran, Malaysia
2. Anjaree Lesbian Group Thailand
3. APCOM (Asia Pacific Coalition On Male Sexual Health)
4. Arus Pelangi, Indonesia
5. Asia Pacific Transgender Network
6. Blue Diamond Society, Nepal
7. Cambodian League for the Promotion and Defense of Human Rights (LICADHO)
8. CARAM Asia
9. Colors Rainbow, Burma
10. Community Action Network, Malaysia
11. Federation of Sexual and Gender minorities, Nepal
12. Gender and Development Advocates (GANDA) Filipinas
13. Gendercare.com (Dr.Torres)
14. GATE (Global Action for Trans* Equality)
15. Human Rights Education Institute of Burma (HREIB), Burma
16. Indonesia for Humans
17. Islamic Renaissance Front (IRF)
18. Justice for Sisters
19. Knowledge and Rights with Young people through Safer Spaces (KRYSS)
20. Malaysian Civil Liberties Movement (MCLM)
21. Pacific Sexual Diversity Network (PSDN)
22. Persatuan Masyarakat Selangor dan Wilayah Persekutuan (PERMAS)
23. Pertubuhan Advokasi Masyarakat Terpinggir Kuala Lumpur dan Selangor (PAMT)
24. Pink Therapy
25. PT Foundation, Malaysia
26. Pusat Komunikasi Masyarakat (KOMAS)
27. Project X, Singapore
28. Rainbow Genders Society (RGS)
29. Seksualiti Merdeka
30. Tenaganita, Malaysia
31. Thai Transgender Alliance
32. Transmen of Malaysia
33. Women’s Aid Organisation (WAO)
34. Wonetha Uganda
35. Yayasan Lintas Nusa, Batam, Indonesia
36. Youth Lead Organisation

+++

Lampiran 1

APA Stands Up for Transgender, Gender-Variant Individuals
by Deborah Brauser, Medscape Medical News.

The American Psychiatric Association (APA) has issued official position statements of support for access to healthcare and a repeal of laws and policies that discriminate against individuals who are transgender and gender variant.

In a release, the APA said it will advocate for the removal of barriers to care for gender transition treatment and for the protection of civil rights. The organization has supported lesbian and gay rights since 1973, when it removed homosexuality from the second edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-II), and now it wants to publicly support the transgender community.

“Transgender and gender variant people are frequently denied medical, surgical, and psychiatric care related to gender transition,” notes the APA statement. The new position statements were created by the APA Caucus of Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Psychiatrists.

“The APA has officially put itself on record as being in support of these issues. Being transgender should not imply that a person is not a fully capable citizen,” Jack Drescher, MD, who is coauthor of the statements and who is a training and supervising analyst at the William Alanson White Institute of Psychiatry, Psychoanalysis and Psychology in New York City, told Medscape Medical News.

The 2 position statements join a recent report from an APA task force published earlier this year in the Archives of Sexual Behavior that lists treatment recommendations for individuals with gender identity disorder (GID).

This treads into thorny territory. Many people, including protestors at the 2009 APA Annual Meeting, have questioned whether GID should be considered a mental disorder and whether it should be included in the upcoming fifth edition of the DSM (DSM-5).

“The motivation for originally putting GID in the manual was to try to create access to care,” said Dr. Drescher, who was a consultant on the report.

“But you have sort of 2 conflicting interests: reduction of stigma by removing it from the manual vs access to care, because you can’t get medical treatment unless you have a diagnosis. It’s complicated.”

Discrimination Damaging

“Discrimination and lack of equal civil rights is damaging to the mental health of individuals,” writes the APA.

“For example, gender-based discrimination and victimization were found to be independently associated with attempted suicide in a population of transgender individuals, 32% of whom had histories of trying to kill themselves.”

Both the American Medical Association and the American Psychological Association have previously released strong policy statements of support for these individuals.

The APA’s new Access to Care position statement declares that the organization
• recognizes that these individuals “can benefit greatly from medical and surgical gender transition treatments”;
• supports public and private health insurance coverage for this treatment; and
• is against the rejection of this coverage when it has been prescribed by a clinician.

The new discrimination position statement declares that the APA
• supports all laws that protect the civil rights of these individuals;
• urges the repeal of any discriminatory laws and policies;
• opposes discrimination in the areas of healthcare, as well as in employment, housing, and education; and
• “declares that no burden of proof of such judgment, capacity, or reliability shall be placed upon these individuals greater than that imposed on any other persons.”
“Speaking out firmly and professionally against discrimination and lack of equal civil rights is a critical advocacy role that the APA is uniquely positioned to take,” writes the organization.

Controversy

Dr. Drescher noted that although the APA has long been an advocate for gay and lesbian civil rights, until now it has not officially released support for the rights of transgender people.

“It was completely silent on transgender issues. These are really the first public position statements that APA has supported. But they oppose stigma of any kind, and these statements are consistent with APA’s mission,” said Dr. Drescher, who was also chair of the APA’s Committee on Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Issues from 2000 to 2006.

He noted that he has also been advocating for a task force on treatment recommendations since leaving the committee 6 years ago.

“There are a lot of controversies in this area, not so much with adults but around treatment of children. The Task Force came together and put out a document that was approved by the APA that said that treatment of adults was important. And there’s enough literature to justify the development of treatment guidelines,” he said.

Dr. Drescher is also part of the Workgroup on Sexual and Gender Identity Disorders for the DSM-5.

“As part of my job there, I did a review of the history of homosexuality being taken out of the DSM, especially because a lot of people in the trans community have been demanding the removal of GID. And I was intrigued by the parallels,” he explained.

“On the one hand, I could see that by taking something out, you reduce stigma. But if you take homosexuality out of the manual, gay people don’t need anything else other than the diagnoses everyone else has. If you take out gender identity disorder, adults who require treatment don’t have any other diagnosis. So it’s not exactly the same.”

Jack Drescher, MD is the President of Group for the Advancement of Psychiatry. His position statements are available on the APA’s Web site. For more information on Transgender Issues in Psychology, please visit here.

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