‘Mak Nyah’ witch-hunt fear

Council raises concern transgender persecution may increase discrimination
FRIDAY, OCTOBER 19, 2012 – 12:47
by Hamzah Nazari
Location:
KUALA LUMPUR

A RECENT case in Negri Sembilan where four transgender persons lost their case when challenging a ban on Muslim men dressing and posing as women could spark a witch-hunt by the authorities against the community, the Malaysian AIDS Council (MAC) said.

“We don’t want these things to happen again in other states,” said MAC media and communications head Azahemy Abdullah, when commenting on an earlier MAC statement backing the cause of the four transgender persons.

“While MAC respects the decision of the Negri Sembilan Syariah Court, we firmly believe that every Malaysian is entitled to equal protection and dignity under the country’s constitutional rights,” said Azahemy.

“We fear that this judgment could lead to increased stigma as well as acts of persecution and discrimination by authorities, especially from the enforcement officials of the religious department.”

However, practising Syariah Court lawyer Fakhrul Azman Abu Hasan said Syariah Courts prosecuting transgender persons was not a new trend.

“The syariah law is very clear. A man cannot act as a woman and a woman cannot act as a man,” he said.

He said the Syariah Court prosecution and judges had to act according to the law but usually opt to send transgender Muslims for counselling.

“They give chances, arrange for an Ustaz to give lectures on why they are born as men and women.”

“Most will plead guilty and not contest it. They will pay the fine,” he said.

Fakhrul Azman said transgender persons could challenge the law by claiming it was against human rights in the Federal Court, or by getting their plight to be heard in Parliament.

If they were to win in court, he said the law would be deemed void, but added that this would be difficult as, unlike in European countries, morality is taken as law in Malaysia.

“They (Europeans) do not take morality as law, but in Asian and Muslim countries, they do.”

“The law has been enacted by parliament. If the law is there, the judges have to follow,” he said.

Bar Council president Lim Chee Wee said transgender Muslims were treated well in the past and there was no reason as a matter of policy why they should be persecuted or prosecuted now.

He quoted Teh Yik Koon’s essay, “The Male To Female Transsexuals In Malaysia: What Should We Do With Them?” in which the writer claimed that transgender persons, commonly known as ‘Mak Nyahs’ in Malaysia, had a better standard of living during the colonial days and that there were less sex workers then compared to now.

Many were Mak Andams (bride’s attendants), joget dancers, cooks or artistes.

He said in an interview with a 63-year-old ‘Mak Nyah’, it was related that during the colonial days, they were left undisturbed.

Lim said Malaysians must ask themselves why people who are different and who are at the margins of society could not be accepted.

“Why can’t we accept them as who they are with compassion, and liberal and progressive ideals, rejecting extremism?” he asked Lim said: “Human beings should be treated equally, and the principle of nondiscrimination is paramount in this respect.

“Individuals should have the right to make their own choices relating to gender identity,” he said.

A joint statement by the Australian GLBTIQ Multicultural Council and the Queer Muslims in Australia

It is a sad fact that transgender people world over continue to suffer from persecution and discrimination, as is the case in Malaysia today. Although there has been progress in many parts of the world for the recognition and protection of rights for gay and lesbian people, the transgender community continue to report higher levels of abuse, harassment, vilification and bullying all over the globe. We call on the Government of Malaysia to respect the human rights of all its people and repeal discriminatory laws which have repeatedly targeted transgender citizens.

http://www.agmc.org.au/

Regional groups back transgender 4

Leven Woon | October 18, 2012

Some 21 local and regional rights groups have hit out at the Seremban High Court verdict last week.

PETALING JAYA: A Seremban High Court’s verdict last week against four Muslim transgenders dressing up in women’s clothes has drawn flak from local and regional rights groups.

In a joint statement endorsed by 21 NGOs, including Indonesia’s Arus Pelangi, Cambodia’s League for Promotion and Defence of Human Rights, the Philippines’ Gender and Development Advocates, Burma’s Human Rights Education Institute and Thailand’s Anjaree Lesbian Group, they described the court’s decision as “regressive”.

“We believe as fellow citizens, irrespective of race or religion, transgender people are equally entitled to all the constitutional rights that are enjoyed by other Malaysians.

“We believe the judge’s ruling is a regressive step and adversely affects the human rights of all Malaysians,” they said.
The statement was also supported by local Islamic Renaissance Front, Malaysia Civil Liberties Movement, Pusat Komunikasi Masyarakat (Komas), Persatuan Masyarakat Selangor dan Wilayah Persekutuan (Permas), Tenaganita, Seksualiti Merdeka and others.

The groups said they were “distraught and disheartened” with the verdict of Justice Siti Mariah Ahmad who held that Section 66 of the Syariah Criminal (Negeri Sembilan) Enactment 1992, excludes the transgender fundamental liberties under the constitution.

“We are saddened to hear that the court has ruled in favour of the state and its officials, thus condoning discrimination and violence on grounds of gender identity,” they said.

The rights advocates also said that the court had failed to consider the medical evidences, such as the fact that the four transgenders had been diagnosed with “Gender Identity Disorder”.

Citing a statement by the American Psychiatric Association (APA), they said medical experts agreed that laws and policies that discriminate people with “Gender Identity Disorder” or a similar term “Gender Dysphoria” should be repealed.
They said transgender people were often subjected to various forms of violence, stigma and discrimination, such as name calling, bullying, or in some cases families disown them.

“Portrayal of transgender people as deviants and threat to public morality in the mainstream media too contributes to the stigma, discrimination and violence that are faced by the transgender community,” they added.

Last week, the Seremban High Court delivered a blow to the four who filed a judicial review seeking to declare Section 66 of Syariah law as ultra vires with fundamental liberties guaranteed under the Federal Constitution.

Siti Mariah had said the four Muslim transgenders are subjected to Syariah law and hence the Federal Constitution should be exempted under this case.

On Monday, NGO Sisters In Islam had called for a comprehensive review on Syariah criminal law.

Press Statement: Treat Transgenders with Compassion, Malaysian AIDS Council Urges

Kuala Lumpur, 17 October 2012 – Malaysian AIDS Council (MAC) stands in solidarity with the four transgender persons who lost their bid in challenging the ban on Muslim men to dress and pose as women under Section 66 of the Syariah Criminal (Negeri Sembilan) Enactment. The judgment was passed on 11 October 2012.

While MAC respects the decision of the Negeri Sembilan Syariah court, we firmly believe that every Malaysian is entitled to equal protection and dignity under the country’s Constitutional Rights. We fear that this judgment could lead to increased stigma as well as acts of persecution and discrimination by authorities, especially from the enforcement officials of the religious department.

We are deeply concerned about the negative impact of the judgment on the greater transgender community. Much like everyone else, transgenders too are productive members of society. They are capable of contributing positively to the community at large and they have families to support. Denying their gender identity or expression will only cause them to live their lives in constant fear, and limit their opportunities to attain meaningful livelihoods. At MAC, we believe in compassion – the universal value that guides all our actions and responses – and strive to eliminate environments that breed intolerance, persecution and penalisation of marginalised communities.

MAC also strongly objects to the court’s insinuation that being a transgender will increase the person’s vulnerability to HIV infection. Gender identity or sexual orientation does not predispose one to HIV; unsafe sexual practices do.

Therefore, to address misconceptions of HIV and to increase awareness, information and empathy towards transgender people and other sexual minorities, MAC and its Partner Organisation, PT Foundation, welcome the call by Justice Siti Mariah Ahmad to work closely with the religious authorities of Negeri Sembilan. We believe this engagement is a step in the right direction to remove all structural barriers to health equities – particularly gender and sexuality-based discrimination – that have been known to negatively affect access to HIV prevention, treatment, care and support services.

Malaysian Court Rejects Challenge to Cross-Dressing Ban

By LIZ GOOCH
Published: October 11, 2012

KUALA LUMPUR, Malaysia — A challenge to a law barring Muslim men from dressing or posing as women was dismissed on Thursday by a Malaysian court, prompting concern that more transgender people in the Muslim-majority country may be prosecuted.

In Malaysia, Muslim men can be fined and jailed for transvestism under the country’s dual legal system, which includes secular laws that apply to all citizens as well as Islamic or Shariah laws that apply only to Muslims, like the ban on transvestism. Penalties for cross-dressing differ in individual states, but in Negeri Sembilan, where the case was heard, convicted offenders may be sentenced to up to six months in prison, fined as much as $325 or both.

The application to the court to review the law, which was brought by four Muslims who were born male but act and dress as women, was the first time anyone had sought to challenge the ban in a secular court.

The Negeri Sembilan High Court ruled that because the litigants are Muslim and were born male, they must adhere to the law, because it is part of Islamic teaching, said Aston Paiva, a lawyer representing them.

“In my view, it sets a very dangerous precedent, because it’s effectively saying that state-enacted Islamic law overrides fundamental liberties,” Mr. Paiva said. Referring to the judge, he continued, “She has basically said that even if it conflicts with freedom of expression, the Islamic laws override the Constitution.”

The judge also said that a Malaysian nongovernmental organization that supports transgender people in the country, the PT Foundation, should work with the religious authorities to ensure that transgender people receive counseling, Mr. Paiva said.

The four litigants, all of whom have been arrested for dressing as women, had argued that the law violated Malaysia’s Constitution, which bans discrimination based on gender and protects freedom of expression. They also said the law should not apply to them because they have received diagnoses of gender identity disorder.

While the four litigants dress as women, use hormones and go by feminine names, their official identification cards declare them to be male and carry their original male names. They want to legally change their names and their officially recognized gender because they say transgender people face considerable discrimination in Malaysia, where homosexual acts are banned not only for Muslims but for the whole population, punishable by caning and up to 20 years’ imprisonment.

“I’m disappointed because it basically deprives me of my freedom and deprives me of the right for me to be myself,” one of the litigants, whose legal name is Mohammad Juzaili bin Mohammad Khamis, said of the verdict.

“Now that it’s out and the court decision is not in our favor, I’m concerned that more arrests, more harassment will happen again and again,” added the 25-year-old, who has been fined 1,000 ringgit on three separate occasions for dressing as a woman. She said she planned to appeal the decision and that the other litigants were considering whether to do so.

Thilaga Sulathireh, a researcher and advocate for transgender rights who attended the hearing, said of the verdict: “It basically tells everyone that Muslims have no rights. It’s basically governing how one chooses to dress and how one chooses to express oneself. It’s a very shocking judgment.”

AIDS council backs transgenders’ legal battle

James Lim | October 17, 2012

The Malaysian AIDS Council supports the four transgenders who challenged a dress ban on Muslim men dressing as women.

PETALING JAYA: The Malaysian AIDS Council (MAC) stands in solidarity with the four transgender individuals who lost their bid in challenging the ban on Muslim men to dress and pose as women.

MAC said it is deeply concerned over any negative impacts on the greater transgender community as caused by the Negeri Sembilan Syariah court judgment.

“Transgenders too are productive members of society.

“Denying their gender identity or expression will only cause them to live their lives in constant fear, and limit their opportunities to attain meaningful livelihoods.

“At MAC, we believe in compassion- the universal value that guides all our actions and responses – and strive to eliminate environments that breed intolerance, persecution and penalisation of marginalised communities,” said the Council in a statement.

Previously, the four transgender individuals applied for a judicial review to declare Section 66 of the Syariah Criminal (Negeri Sembilan) Enactment as unconstitutional. The enactment banned men from dressing and posing as women.

However, Justice Siti Mariah Ahmad ruled that it was undisputed as the four applications were Muslims, hence Section 66 applied to them.

Meanwhile, the MAC highlighted the misconceptions of HIV as pertaining to the case.

“MAC also strongly objects to the court’s insinuation that being a transgender will increase the person’s vulnerability to HIV infection.

“Gender identity or sexual orientation does not predispose one to HIV; unsafe sexual practices do,”the Council explained.
MAC together with partner organisation, PT Foundation, said it welcomed the call by Justice Siti Mariah Ahmad to work closely with the religious authorities of Negeri Sembilan.

“We believe this engagement is a step in the right direction to remove all structural barriers to health equities – particularly gender and sexuality-based discrimination – that has been known to negatively affect access to HIV prevention, treatment, care and support services,” added MAC

Golongan transgender juga mempunyai hak!

Kami daripada komuniti transgender sangat kecewa dengan keputusan berkenaan semakan kehakiman seksyen 66 dalam Enakmen Jenayah Syariah 1992 (Negeri Sembilan) yang diberikan oleh Hakim Datuk Siti Mariah Ahmad pada Oktober 11 2012 di Makhamah Tinggi Seremban. Hakim dalam keputusannya menyatakan bahawa seksyen tersebut mengecualikan hak asasi kita yang terkandung dalam Perlembagaan Persekutuan.

Kami kecewa dengan keputusan mahkamah yang berpihak kepada kerajaan negeri dan penguatkuasanya, yang sekaligus menggalakkan diskriminasi serta keganasan berdasarkan identiti gender.

Kami juga terkejut dengan keputusan hakim kerana beliau terlalu banyak merujuk kepada teks Islam untuk menjustifikasikan kewujudan undang-undang tersebut, sedangkan Perlembagaan Persekutuan ialah undang-undang yang paling tinggi di Malaysia. Kami meminta mahkamah untuk memeriksa sama ada undang-undang tersebut selaras dengan Perlembagaan Persekutuan kerana kami percaya bahawa seksyen 66 dan undang-undang lain yang sama dengannya, tidak konsisten dengan kebebasan kita untuk berekspresi, hak untuk tidak didiskriminasi, maruah diri, privasi, serta hak untuk kerja.

Kami percaya bahawa mahkamah telah membuat kesilapan dalam keputusannya kerana mahkamah gagal untuk meneliti semua bukti-bukti perubatan. Selain itu, mahkamah juga tidak mangambil kira keganasan yang telah dialami oleh golongan mak nyah di negeri Sembilan disebabkan oleh undang-undang ini.

Seksyen 66 dan juga undang-undang lain yang sama dengannya di Malaysia telah digunakan untuk terlalu lama untuk mencabul hak asasi golongan mak nyah di negara ini. Ramai mak nyah, termasuklah empat orang yang memfailkan kes ini, telah mengalami keganasan fizikal, emosi dan seksual serta mereka juga terpaksa mendengar sindiran dan cemuhan daripada penguatkuasa daripada Jabatan Agama Islam. Golongan mak nyah pernah dipukul, ditumbuk, ditendang, diraba, dimaki, dipaksa untuk memuaskan nafsu seks penguatkuasa, dan diaibkan di tempat awam oleh penguatkuasa daripada Jabatan Agama Islam. Salah seorang daripada mereka yang memfailkan kes ini pernah dipukul dengan teruk di tempat awam oleh penguatkuasa daripada Jabatan Agama Islam Negeri Sembilan sehingga meninggalkan kesan fizikal dan mental. Beliau masih lagi mengalami trauma apabila menceritakan semula peristiwa tersebut.

Golongan transgender tidak memilih untuk menjadi transgender dan kami juga tidak boleh mengubah perasaan ini. Kami tidak berlagak seperti jantina yang bertentangan dengan kami. Kami rasa bahawa diri kami tidak seharmoni dengan jantina yang diberikan. Kami mengekspresikan diri kami berdasarkan naluri kami kerana hal ini memberikan kami kebahagiaan dan ketenangan jiwa. Ramai mak nyah seperti kami mula memakai pakaian perempuan dan bersolek sewaktu kami muda lagi; kami lebih gemar bermain dengan perempuan daripada lelaki, dan kami juga ingin mengubah rupa muka kami serta menjalani pembedahan pertukaran jantina (sex reassigment surgery) supaya kami boleh hidup dalam badan yang kami rasa paling selesa.

Dalam edisi terkini Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), American Psychiatric Association (APA) telah menggantikan istilah “Gender Identity Disorder” kepada “Gender Dysphoria,” “a marked incongruence between one’s experienced/expressed gender and assigned gender.” APA juga dalam kenyataannya menggesa kerajaan untuk memansuhkan undang-undang atau polisi-polisi yang mendiskriminasi golongan transgender dan golongan yang bervariasi gender. (rujuk lampiran 1)

Golongan transgender juga mengalami pelbagai jenis keganasan, stigma dan diskriminasi disebabkan oleh identiti gender kami, kerana kami dilihat sebagai berbeza daripda orang lain. Pada usia yang kecil lagi, kami dibuli dan dicemuh di sekolah. Sebagai kesannya, ramai kanak-kanak transgender ketinggalan di sekoleh atau tidak menyambung atau menghabiskan persekolahan mereka. Dalam sesetengah kes, keluarga mengusir dan tidak mengaku anak-anak transgender mereka kerana mereka tidak boleh menerima seorang anak yang berbeza. Akhirnya, ramai daripada golongan transgender kehilangan sistem sokongan yang penuh dengan kasih sayang yang dinikmati oleh orang lain.

Pemaparan golongan transgender sebagai golongan yang terpesong dan ancaman kepada masyarakat dalam media arus perdana juga mendorong kepada stigma, diskriminasi serta keganasan yang dialami oleh golongan transgender.

Kami percaya bahawa sebagai rakyat, tanpa mengira agama atau kumpulan etnik, golongan transgender juga mempunyai hak untuk menikamti hak-hak yang terkandung dalam Perlembagaan Persekutuan. Sebagai rakyat, kami juga berhak untuk mendapatkan perlindungan daripada kerajaan terhadap apa-apa jenis ketidakadilan, diskriminasi dan keganasan. Kami percaya bahawa keputusan mahkamah ini membawa kesan yang negatif kepada hak asasi manusia bagi semua rakyat Malaysia.

Disokong oleh

1. Aliran, Malaysia
2. Anjaree Lesbian Group Thailand
3. APCOM (Asia Pacific Coalition On Male Sexual Health)
4. Arus Pelangi, Indonesia
5. Asia Pacific Transgender Network
6. Blue Diamond Society, Nepal
7. Cambodian League for the Promotion and Defense of Human Rights (LICADHO)
8. CARAM Asia
9. Colors Rainbow, Burma
10. Community Action Network, Malaysia
11. Federation of Sexual and Gender minorities, Nepal
12. Gender and Development Advocates (GANDA) Filipinas
13. Gendercare.com (Dr.Torres)
14. GATE (Global Action for Trans* Equality)
15. Human Rights Education Institute of Burma (HREIB), Burma
16. Indonesia for Humans
17. Islamic Renaissance Front (IRF)
18. Justice for Sisters
19. Knowledge and Rights with Young people through Safer Spaces (KRYSS)
20. Malaysian Civil Liberties Movement (MCLM)
21. Pacific Sexual Diversity Network (PSDN)
22. Persatuan Masyarakat Selangor dan Wilayah Persekutuan (PERMAS)
23. Pertubuhan Advokasi Masyarakat Terpinggir Kuala Lumpur dan Selangor (PAMT)
24. Pink Therapy
25. PT Foundation, Malaysia
26. Pusat Komunikasi Masyarakat (KOMAS)
27. Project X, Singapore
28. Rainbow Genders Society (RGS)
29. Seksualiti Merdeka
30. Tenaganita, Malaysia
31. Thai Transgender Alliance
32. Transmen of Malaysia
33. Women’s Aid Organisation (WAO)
34. Wonetha Uganda
35. Yayasan Lintas Nusa, Batam, Indonesia
36. Youth Lead Organisation

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Lampiran 1

APA Stands Up for Transgender, Gender-Variant Individuals
by Deborah Brauser, Medscape Medical News.

The American Psychiatric Association (APA) has issued official position statements of support for access to healthcare and a repeal of laws and policies that discriminate against individuals who are transgender and gender variant.

In a release, the APA said it will advocate for the removal of barriers to care for gender transition treatment and for the protection of civil rights. The organization has supported lesbian and gay rights since 1973, when it removed homosexuality from the second edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-II), and now it wants to publicly support the transgender community.

“Transgender and gender variant people are frequently denied medical, surgical, and psychiatric care related to gender transition,” notes the APA statement. The new position statements were created by the APA Caucus of Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Psychiatrists.

“The APA has officially put itself on record as being in support of these issues. Being transgender should not imply that a person is not a fully capable citizen,” Jack Drescher, MD, who is coauthor of the statements and who is a training and supervising analyst at the William Alanson White Institute of Psychiatry, Psychoanalysis and Psychology in New York City, told Medscape Medical News.

The 2 position statements join a recent report from an APA task force published earlier this year in the Archives of Sexual Behavior that lists treatment recommendations for individuals with gender identity disorder (GID).

This treads into thorny territory. Many people, including protestors at the 2009 APA Annual Meeting, have questioned whether GID should be considered a mental disorder and whether it should be included in the upcoming fifth edition of the DSM (DSM-5).

“The motivation for originally putting GID in the manual was to try to create access to care,” said Dr. Drescher, who was a consultant on the report.

“But you have sort of 2 conflicting interests: reduction of stigma by removing it from the manual vs access to care, because you can’t get medical treatment unless you have a diagnosis. It’s complicated.”

Discrimination Damaging

“Discrimination and lack of equal civil rights is damaging to the mental health of individuals,” writes the APA.

“For example, gender-based discrimination and victimization were found to be independently associated with attempted suicide in a population of transgender individuals, 32% of whom had histories of trying to kill themselves.”

Both the American Medical Association and the American Psychological Association have previously released strong policy statements of support for these individuals.

The APA’s new Access to Care position statement declares that the organization
• recognizes that these individuals “can benefit greatly from medical and surgical gender transition treatments”;
• supports public and private health insurance coverage for this treatment; and
• is against the rejection of this coverage when it has been prescribed by a clinician.

The new discrimination position statement declares that the APA
• supports all laws that protect the civil rights of these individuals;
• urges the repeal of any discriminatory laws and policies;
• opposes discrimination in the areas of healthcare, as well as in employment, housing, and education; and
• “declares that no burden of proof of such judgment, capacity, or reliability shall be placed upon these individuals greater than that imposed on any other persons.”
“Speaking out firmly and professionally against discrimination and lack of equal civil rights is a critical advocacy role that the APA is uniquely positioned to take,” writes the organization.

Controversy

Dr. Drescher noted that although the APA has long been an advocate for gay and lesbian civil rights, until now it has not officially released support for the rights of transgender people.

“It was completely silent on transgender issues. These are really the first public position statements that APA has supported. But they oppose stigma of any kind, and these statements are consistent with APA’s mission,” said Dr. Drescher, who was also chair of the APA’s Committee on Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Issues from 2000 to 2006.

He noted that he has also been advocating for a task force on treatment recommendations since leaving the committee 6 years ago.

“There are a lot of controversies in this area, not so much with adults but around treatment of children. The Task Force came together and put out a document that was approved by the APA that said that treatment of adults was important. And there’s enough literature to justify the development of treatment guidelines,” he said.

Dr. Drescher is also part of the Workgroup on Sexual and Gender Identity Disorders for the DSM-5.

“As part of my job there, I did a review of the history of homosexuality being taken out of the DSM, especially because a lot of people in the trans community have been demanding the removal of GID. And I was intrigued by the parallels,” he explained.

“On the one hand, I could see that by taking something out, you reduce stigma. But if you take homosexuality out of the manual, gay people don’t need anything else other than the diagnoses everyone else has. If you take out gender identity disorder, adults who require treatment don’t have any other diagnosis. So it’s not exactly the same.”

Jack Drescher, MD is the President of Group for the Advancement of Psychiatry. His position statements are available on the APA’s Web site. For more information on Transgender Issues in Psychology, please visit here.

Transgender people have rights too!

We, the transgender community, are very disappointed, distraught and disheartened with the unfavourable verdict of Justice Datuk Siti Mariah Ahmad on 11th of October 2012 in the High Court at Seremban, where the Judge held that section 66 of the Syariah Criminal (Negeri Sembilan) Enactment 1992 excludes our fundamental liberties under the Constitution.

We are saddened to hear that the court has ruled in favour of the State and its officials, thus condoning discrimination and violence on grounds of gender identity.

We are also shocked by the reliance on Islamic texts in her ruling to justify the existence of the law when it is the Constitution that is the supreme law of Malaysia. We seek a review of the constitutionality of the law as we believe that section 66 and other similar laws are inconsistent with our freedom of expression, right to non-discrimination, dignity, privacy and right to livelihood.

We believe the court erred in its decision in failing to consider all medical evidence and overlooked the mistreatment and violence that the transwomen in Negeri Sembilan have been subjected to because of this law.

Section 66 and similar laws in other states in Malaysia have been used for far too long to violate the rights of the transwomen in this country. Many transwomen, including the four applicants in the case, have been subjected to physical, verbal, emotional and sexual abuse by officers employed by the Islamic religious department. They have been beaten, punched, kicked, groped, molested, insulted, coerced for sexual favours and humiliated in public places by Islamic religious officers. On one account, one of the applicants was brutally beaten up in a public place by the religious officers, leaving her with physical and mental scars. She is still disturbed by the incident and is traumatized when recounting it.

Transgender people do not choose to be transgender and neither can we change it. We do not impersonate or pose as the opposite sex. We live in disharmony with our assigned gender, and express ourselves based on how we feel on the inside, which gives us inner peace and personal happiness. Many transwomen like ourselves start wearing female clothes and make-up at a young age; we prefer to play with girls rather than boys, and some of us intend to change our facial attributes and undergo sex reassignment surgery to live in the body that we are most comfortable with.

In the latest edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) the American Psychiatric Association (APA) replaced the diagnostic term “Gender Identity Disorder” with the term “Gender Dysphoria,” “a marked incongruence between one’s experienced/expressed gender and assigned gender.” The APA too, in a statement urged the repeal of laws and policies that discriminate against transgender and gender variant people. (Refer to Appendix 1)

Transgender people are subjected to many forms of violence, stigma and discrimination because of our gender identity, because we are perceived as different. At a very young age, we are subjected to name calling and bullying in schools. As a result, many transgender children fall behind in school or display very little interest in continuing and finishing their studies. In some cases, families disown and kick out their transgender children simply because family members cannot accept a child who is different. Consequently, many transgender people are deprived of a loving support system that others enjoy.

Portrayal of transgender people as deviants and threat to public morality in the mainstream media too contributes to the stigma, discrimination and violence that are faced by the transgender community.

We believe as fellow citizens, irrespective of race or religion, transgender people are equally entitled to all the constitutional rights that are enjoyed by other Malaysians. As residents of this country, we are also entitled to protection by the state from any form of injustice, discrimination and violence. We believe the judge’s ruling is a regressive step and adversely affects the human rights of all Malaysians.

Endorsed by

1. Aliran, Malaysia
2. Anjaree Lesbian Group Thailand
3. APCOM (Asia Pacific Coalition On Male Sexual Health)
4. Arus Pelangi, Indonesia
5. APROASE A.C.
6. Asia Pacific Transgender Network
7. Asia Pacific Network for HIV+ People (APN+)
8. Blue Diamond Society, Nepal
9. Cambodian League for the Promotion and Defense of Human Rights (LICADHO)
10. CARAM Asia
11. Center of Excellence for Transgender Health at UCSF
12. Colors Rainbow, Burma
13. Community Action Network, Malaysia
14. Federation of Sexual and Gender minorities, Nepal
15. Gender and Development Advocates (GANDA) Filipinas
16. Gendercare.com (Dr.Torres)
17. GATE (Global Action for Trans* Equality)
18. Human Rights Education Institute of Burma (HREIB), Burma
19. Indonesia for Humans
20. Islamic Renaissance Front (IRF)
21. Justice for Sisters
22. Knowledge and Rights with Young people through Safer Spaces (KRYSS)
23. Malaysian Civil Liberties Movement (MCLM)
24. MSMGF Trans Ref Group
25. Pacific Sexual Diversity Network (PSDN)
26. Persatuan Masyarakat Selangor dan Wilayah Persekutuan (PERMAS)
27. Pertubuhan Advokasi Masyarakat Terpinggir Kuala Lumpur dan Selangor (PAMT)
28. Pink Therapy
29. PT Foundation, Malaysia
30. Pusat Komunikasi Masyarakat (KOMAS)
31. Project X, Singapore
32. Rainbow Genders Society (RGS)
33. Seksualiti Merdeka
34. Solidarity and Action Against The HIV Infection in India (SAATHII)
35. Tenaganita, Malaysia
36. Te Tiare Association, Rarotonga, Cook Islands
37. Thai Transgender Alliance
38. Transgender community advisory board of Thailand
39. Transgender watch dog group of Thailand
40. Transmen of Malaysia
41. Women’s Aid Organisation (WAO)
42. Wonetha Uganda
43. Yayasan Lintas Nusa, Batam, Indonesia
44. Youth Lead Organisation

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Appendix 1

APA Stands Up for Transgender, Gender-Variant Individuals
by Deborah Brauser, Medscape Medical News.

The American Psychiatric Association (APA) has issued official position statements of support for access to healthcare and a repeal of laws and policies that discriminate against individuals who are transgender and gender variant.

In a release, the APA said it will advocate for the removal of barriers to care for gender transition treatment and for the protection of civil rights. The organization has supported lesbian and gay rights since 1973, when it removed homosexuality from the second edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-II), and now it wants to publicly support the transgender community.

“Transgender and gender variant people are frequently denied medical, surgical, and psychiatric care related to gender transition,” notes the APA statement. The new position statements were created by the APA Caucus of Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Psychiatrists.

“The APA has officially put itself on record as being in support of these issues. Being transgender should not imply that a person is not a fully capable citizen,” Jack Drescher, MD, who is coauthor of the statements and who is a training and supervising analyst at the William Alanson White Institute of Psychiatry, Psychoanalysis and Psychology in New York City, told Medscape Medical News.

The 2 position statements join a recent report from an APA task force published earlier this year in the Archives of Sexual Behavior that lists treatment recommendations for individuals with gender identity disorder (GID).

This treads into thorny territory. Many people, including protestors at the 2009 APA Annual Meeting, have questioned whether GID should be considered a mental disorder and whether it should be included in the upcoming fifth edition of the DSM (DSM-5).

“The motivation for originally putting GID in the manual was to try to create access to care,” said Dr. Drescher, who was a consultant on the report.

“But you have sort of 2 conflicting interests: reduction of stigma by removing it from the manual vs access to care, because you can’t get medical treatment unless you have a diagnosis. It’s complicated.”

Discrimination Damaging

“Discrimination and lack of equal civil rights is damaging to the mental health of individuals,” writes the APA.

“For example, gender-based discrimination and victimization were found to be independently associated with attempted suicide in a population of transgender individuals, 32% of whom had histories of trying to kill themselves.”

Both the American Medical Association and the American Psychological Association have previously released strong policy statements of support for these individuals.

The APA’s new Access to Care position statement declares that the organization
• recognizes that these individuals “can benefit greatly from medical and surgical gender transition treatments”;
• supports public and private health insurance coverage for this treatment; and
• is against the rejection of this coverage when it has been prescribed by a clinician.

The new discrimination position statement declares that the APA
• supports all laws that protect the civil rights of these individuals;
• urges the repeal of any discriminatory laws and policies;
• opposes discrimination in the areas of healthcare, as well as in employment, housing, and education; and
• “declares that no burden of proof of such judgment, capacity, or reliability shall be placed upon these individuals greater than that imposed on any other persons.”
“Speaking out firmly and professionally against discrimination and lack of equal civil rights is a critical advocacy role that the APA is uniquely positioned to take,” writes the organization.

Controversy

Dr. Drescher noted that although the APA has long been an advocate for gay and lesbian civil rights, until now it has not officially released support for the rights of transgender people.

“It was completely silent on transgender issues. These are really the first public position statements that APA has supported. But they oppose stigma of any kind, and these statements are consistent with APA’s mission,” said Dr. Drescher, who was also chair of the APA’s Committee on Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Issues from 2000 to 2006.

He noted that he has also been advocating for a task force on treatment recommendations since leaving the committee 6 years ago.

“There are a lot of controversies in this area, not so much with adults but around treatment of children. The Task Force came together and put out a document that was approved by the APA that said that treatment of adults was important. And there’s enough literature to justify the development of treatment guidelines,” he said.

Dr. Drescher is also part of the Workgroup on Sexual and Gender Identity Disorders for the DSM-5.

“As part of my job there, I did a review of the history of homosexuality being taken out of the DSM, especially because a lot of people in the trans community have been demanding the removal of GID. And I was intrigued by the parallels,” he explained.

“On the one hand, I could see that by taking something out, you reduce stigma. But if you take homosexuality out of the manual, gay people don’t need anything else other than the diagnoses everyone else has. If you take out gender identity disorder, adults who require treatment don’t have any other diagnosis. So it’s not exactly the same.”

Jack Drescher, MD is the President of Group for the Advancement of Psychiatry. His position statements are available on the APA’s Web site. For more information on Transgender Issues in Psychology, please visit here.

Sisters in Islam call for Syariah law review

Leven Woon | October 15, 2012
They say the Syariah Criminal Offences Enactment and its record of enforcement is questionable and can lead to abuse.

PETALING JAYA: The Seremban High Court judgment on four Muslim transgenders last week has prompted NGO Sisters In Islam (SIS) to call for a comprehensive review on the Syariah Criminal Offences Enactment.

SIS manager Suri Kempe said this when commenting on the court’s dismissal of the transgenders’ application to seek for the right to dress in women clothes under Article 8 of the Federal Constitution.

Justice Siti Mariah Ahmad, when delivering the judgment, had said that the applicants are Muslims and hence are subjected to Section 66 of Syariah Criminal Enactment 1992, that bars Muslim men from dressing or posing as women.

Suri said the Syariah Criminal Offences Enactment and its record of enforcement is questionable as it can be abused.
“Is it the duty of the state, under the name of bringing about a moral society, to turn what it considers ‘sins’ into ‘crimes against the state’?

“Should the state extend the long arm of the law to what should be best left to the religious conscience of the individual?” she asked.

She said the reality is that sexual minorities in Malaysia, especially Muslims, are vulnerable to numerous abuses by the state,

“We urge the government to form a committee which includes representation from women’s groups, human rights groups, progressive Islamic scholars and constitutional experts,” she said.

She said the government needed to adopt a more humane way that embraces the Islamic spirit of justice, equality and compassion.

“We need one that is not punitive in nature, and does not subject Muslims to discrimination and persecution in the name of Islam,” she said.

Lawyers for Liberty adviser Latheefa Koya labelled the verdict as “a dangerous trend” as the Federal Constitution now seemed to be subservient to Syariah law.

“It’s a problem if the court just makes assumption and did not take into account the differences between Syariah law and the Federal Constitution.”

She stressed that the Federal Constitution is supposed to be applied to everyone irrespective of race or religion.
“There is no article that says it is selective except when it comes to the position of religion and Bahasa Malaysia,” she said.